Scientific Papers

Over the last 10 years, the Virtopsy team has published over 200 peer-reviewed scientific articles.

Click here for a list of all Scopus listed articles

Click here for a list of all Pubmed listed articles

  1. Kottner, S, Ebert, LC, Ampanozi, G, Braun, M, Thali, MJ, Gascho, D (2017). VirtoScan - a mobile, low-cost photogrammetry setup for fast post-mortem 3D full-body documentations in x-ray computed tomography and autopsy suites. Forensic Sci Med Pathol13,34-43.
  2. Berger, F, Steuer, AE, Rentsch, K, Gascho, D, Stamou, S, Schärli, S, Thali, MJ, Krämer, T, Flach, PM (2016). Postmortem computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging facilitates forensic autopsy in a fatal case of poisoning with formic acid, diphenhydramine, and ethanol. Forensic Sci Med Pathol12,304-11.
  3. Ebert, LC, Fürst, M, Ptacek, W, Ruder, TD, Gascho, D, Schweitzer, W, Thali, MJ, Flach, PM (2016). Automatic entry point planning for robotic post-mortem CT-based needle placement. Forensic Sci Med Pathol12,336-42.
  4. Ampanozi, G, Held, U, Ruder, TD, Ross, SG, Schweitzer, W, Fornaro, J, Franckenberg, S, Thali, MJ, Flach, PM (2016). Pulmonary thromboembolism on unenhanced postmortem computed tomography: Feasibility and findings. Leg Med (Tokyo)20,68-74.
  5. Ampanozi, G, Hatch, GM, Flach, PM, Thali, MJ, Ruder, TD (2015). Postmortem magnetic resonance imaging: Reproducing typical autopsy heart measurements. Leg Med (Tokyo)17,493-8.
  6. Bolliger, SA, Thali, MJ (2015). Imaging and virtual autopsy: looking back and forward. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond., B, Biol. Sci.370,.
  7. Berger, N, Ampanozi, G, Schweitzer, W, Ross, SG, Gascho, D, Ruder, TD, Thali, MJ, Flach, PM (2015). Racking the brain: detection of cerebral edema on postmortem computed tomography compared with forensic autopsy. Eur J Radiol84,643-51.
  8. Franckenberg, S, Schulze, C, Bolliger, SA, Gascho, D, Thali, MJ, Flach, PM (2015). Postmortem angiography in computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in a case of fatal hemorrhage due to an arterio-venous malformation in the brain. Leg Med (Tokyo)17,180-3.
  9. Ebert, LC, Ruder, TD, Martinez, RM, Flach, PM, Schweitzer, W, Thali, MJ, Ampanozi, G (2015). Computer-assisted virtual autopsy using surgical navigation techniques. AJR Am J Roentgenol204,W58-62.
  10. Ebert, LC, Nguyen, TT, Breitbeck, R, Braun, M, Thali, MJ, Ross, S (2014). The forensic holodeck: an immersive display for forensic crime scene reconstructions. Forensic Sci Med Pathol10,623-6.
  11. Flach, PM, Egli, TC, Bolliger, SA, Berger, N, Ampanozi, G, Thali, MJ, Schweitzer, W (2014). "Blind spots" in forensic autopsy: improved detection of retrobulbar hemorrhage and orbital lesions by postmortem computed tomography (PMCT). Leg Med (Tokyo)16,274-82.
  12. Filograna, L, Thali, MJ, Marchetti, D (2014). Forensic relevance of post-mortem CT imaging of the haemopericardium in determining the cause of death. Leg Med (Tokyo)16,247-51.
  13. Filograna, L, Flach, PM, Bolliger, SA, Thali, MJ (2014). The role of post-mortem CT (PMCT) imaging in the diagnosis of pericardial tamponade due to hemopericardium: A case report. Leg Med (Tokyo)16,150-3.
  14. Bolliger, SA, Ruder, TD, Ketterer, T, Gläser, N, Thali, MJ, Ampanozi, G (2014). Comparison of stab wound probing versus radiological stab wound channel depiction with contrast medium. Forensic Sci. Int.234,45-9.
  15. Martinez, RM, Ptacek, W, Schweitzer, W, Kronreif, G, Fürst, M, Thali, MJ, Ebert, LC (2014). CT-guided, minimally invasive, postmortem needle biopsy using the B-Rob II needle-positioning robot. J. Forensic Sci.59,517-21.
  16. Crooijmans, HJ, Ruder, TD, Zech, WD, Somaini, S, Scheffler, K, Thali, MJ, Bieri, O (2014). Cardiovascular magnetization transfer ratio imaging compared with histology: a postmortem study. J Magn Reson Imaging40,915-9.
  17. Crooijmans, HJ, Ruder, TD, Eggert, S, Paula, P, Thali, MJ, Bieri, O, Schweitzer, W (2013). Feasibility of post mortem cardiac proton density weighted fast field echo imaging in two cases of sudden death. Leg Med (Tokyo)15,310-4.
  18. Berger, N, Paula, P, Gascho, D, Flach, PM, Thali, MJ, Ross, SG, Ampanozi, G (2013). Bone marrow edema induced by a bullet after a self-inflicted accidental firing. Leg Med (Tokyo)15,329-31.
  19. Germerott, T, Preiss, US, Ross, SG, Thali, MJ, Flach, PM (2013). Postmortem ventilation in cases of penetrating gunshot and stab wounds to the chest. Leg Med (Tokyo)15,298-302.
  20. Berger, N, Martinez, R, Winklhofer, S, Flach, PM, Ross, S, Ampanozi, G, Gascho, D, Thali, MJ, Ruder, TD (2013). Pitfalls in post-mortem CT-angiography--intravascular contrast induces post-mortem pericardial effusion. Leg Med (Tokyo)15,315-7.
  21. Kluschke, F, Ross, S, Flach, PM, Schweitzer, W, Ampanozi, G, Gascho, D, Vonlanthen, B, Thali, MJ, Ruder, TD (2013). To see or not to see -- ambiguous findings on post-mortem cross-sectional imaging in a case of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm. Leg Med (Tokyo)15,256-9.
  22. Filograna, L, Hatch, G, Ruder, T, Ross, SG, Bolliger, SA, Thali, MJ (2013). The role of post-mortem imaging in a case of sudden death due to ascending aorta aneurysm rupture. Forensic Sci. Int.228,e76-80.
  23. Ross, S, Ebner, L, Flach, P, Brodhage, R, Bolliger, SA, Christe, A, Thali, MJ (2012). Postmortem whole-body MRI in traumatic causes of death. AJR Am J Roentgenol199,1186-92.
  24. Gebhart, FT, Brogdon, BG, Zech, WD, Thali, MJ, Germerott, T (2012). Gas at postmortem computed tomography--an evaluation of 73 non-putrefied trauma and non-trauma cases. Forensic Sci. Int.222,162-9.
  25. Ross, SG, Thali, MJ, Bolliger, S, Germerott, T, Ruder, TD, Flach, PM (2012). Sudden death after chest pain: feasibility of virtual autopsy with postmortem CT angiography and biopsy. Radiology264,250-9.
  26. Germerott, T, Flach, PM, Preiss, US, Ross, SG, Thali, MJ (2012). Postmortem ventilation: a new method for improved detection of pulmonary pathologies in forensic imaging. Leg Med (Tokyo)14,223-8.
  27. Flach, PM, Ross, SG, Bolliger, SA, Ampanozi, G, Hatch, GM, Schön, C, Thali, MJ, Germerott, T (2012). Massive systemic fat embolism detected by postmortem imaging and biopsy. J. Forensic Sci.57,1376-80.
  28. Ruder, TD, Thali, Y, Schindera, ST, Dalla Torre, SA, Zech, WD, Thali, MJ, Ross, S, Hatch, GM (2012). How reliable are Hounsfield-unit measurements in forensic radiology?. Forensic Sci. Int.220,219-23.
  29. Zech, WD, Hatch, G, Siegenthaler, L, Thali, MJ, Lösch, S (2012). Sex determination from os sacrum by postmortem CT. Forensic Sci. Int.221,39-43.
  30. Filograna, L, Bolliger, SA, Kneubuehl, B, Jackowski, C, Hatch, GM, Thali, MJ (2012). A minimally invasive technique for the detection and analysis of pulmonary fat embolism: a feasibility study. J. Forensic Sci.57,1329-35.
  31. Ebert, LC, Ampanozi, G, Ruder, TD, Hatch, G, Thali, MJ, Germerott, T (2012). CT based volume measurement and estimation in cases of pericardial effusion. J Forensic Leg Med19,126-31.
  32. Ampanozi, G, Zimmermann, D, Hatch, GM, Ruder, TD, Ross, S, Flach, PM, Thali, MJ, Ebert, LC (2012). Format preferences of district attorneys for post-mortem medical imaging reports: understandability, cost effectiveness, and suitability for the courtroom: a questionnaire based study. Leg Med (Tokyo)14,116-20.
  33. Ruder, TD, Hatch, GM, Ebert, LC, Flach, PM, Ross, S, Ampanozi, G, Thali, MJ (2012). Whole body postmortem magnetic resonance angiography. J. Forensic Sci.57,778-82.
  34. Flach, PM, Ross, SG, Ampanozi, G, Ebert, L, Germerott, T, Hatch, GM, Thali, MJ, Patak, MA (2012). "Drug mules" as a radiological challenge: sensitivity and specificity in identifying internal cocaine in body packers, body pushers and body stuffers by computed tomography, plain radiography and Lodox. Eur J Radiol81,2518-26.
  35. Ebert, LC, Ptacek, W, Fürst, M, Ross, S, Thali, MJ, Hatch, G (2012). Minimally invasive postmortem telebiopsy. J. Forensic Sci.57,528-30.
  36. Ebert, LC, Hatch, G, Ampanozi, G, Thali, MJ, Ross, S (2012). You can't touch this: touch-free navigation through radiological images. Surg Innov19,301-7.
  37. Thali, M (2011). [Virtual autopsy (virtopsy) in forensic science: from the scalpel to the scanner]. Pathologe32 Suppl 2,292-5.
  38. Ampanozi, G, Hatch, GM, Ruder, TD, Flach, PM, Germerott, T, Thali, MJ, Ebert, LC (2012). Post-mortem virtual estimation of free abdominal blood volume. Eur J Radiol81,2133-6.
  39. Ruder, TD, Bauer-Kreutz, R, Ampanozi, G, Rosskopf, AB, Pilgrim, TM, Weber, OM, Thali, MJ, Hatch, GM (2012). Assessment of coronary artery disease by post-mortem cardiac MR. Eur J Radiol81,2208-14.
  40. Ebert, LC, Thali, MJ, Ross, S (2011). Getting in touch--3D printing in forensic imaging. Forensic Sci. Int.211,e1-6.
  41. Ruder, TD, Hatch, GM, Siegenthaler, L, Ampanozi, G, Mathier, S, Thali, MJ, Weber, OM (2012). The influence of body temperature on image contrast in post mortem MRI. Eur J Radiol81,1366-70.
  42. Ruder, TD, Germerott, T, Thali, MJ, Hatch, GM (2011). Differentiation of ante-mortem and post-mortem fractures with MRI: a case report. Br J Radiol84,e75-8.
  43. Ruder, TD, Kraehenbuehl, M, Gotsmy, WF, Mathier, S, Ebert, LC, Thali, MJ, Hatch, GM (2012). Radiologic identification of disaster victims: a simple and reliable method using CT of the paranasal sinuses. Eur J Radiol81,e132-8.
  44. Thali, YA, Bolliger, SA, Hatch, GM, Ampanozi, G, Thali, MJ, Ruder, TD (2011). Death by biscuit--exhumation, post-mortem CT, and revision of the cause of death one year after interment. Leg Med (Tokyo)13,142-4.
  45. Ruder, TD, Ketterer, T, Preiss, U, Bolliger, M, Ross, S, Gotsmy, WF, Ampanozi, G, Germerott, T, Thali, MJ, Hatch, GM et al. (2011). Suicidal knife wound to the heart: challenges in reconstructing wound channels with post mortem CT and CT-angiography. Leg Med (Tokyo)13,91-4.
  46. Ampanozi, G, Preiss, U, Hatch, GM, Zech, WD, Ketterer, T, Bolliger, S, Thali, MJ, Ruder, TD (2011). Fatal lower extremity varicose vein rupture. Leg Med (Tokyo)13,87-90.
  47. Ruder, TD, Hatch, GM, Thali, MJ, Fischer, N (2011). One small scan for radiology, one giant leap for forensic medicine - Post-mortem imaging replaces forensic autopsy in a case of traumatic aortic laceration. Leg Med (Tokyo)13,41-3.
  48. Germerott, T, Flach, PM, Furter, M, Ampanozi, G, Ruder, TD, Thali, MJ (2011). Fatal thoracic impalement on postmortem imaging. Leg Med (Tokyo)13,83-6.
  49. Bolliger, SA, Filograna, L, Spendlove, D, Thali, MJ, Dirnhofer, S, Ross, S (2010). Postmortem imaging-guided biopsy as an adjuvant to minimally invasive autopsy with CT and postmortem angiography: a feasibility study. AJR Am J Roentgenol195,1051-6.
  50. Ampanozi, G, Ruder, TD, Hatch, GM, Bolliger, S, Thali, MJ (2010). Incidental findings in post-mortem CT: Calcified ligamentum arteriosum. Leg Med (Tokyo)12,313-5.
  51. Germerott, T, Preiss, US, Ebert, LC, Ruder, TD, Ross, S, Flach, PM, Ampanozi, G, Filograna, L, Thali, MJ (2010). A new approach in virtopsy: Postmortem ventilation in multislice computed tomography. Leg Med (Tokyo)12,276-9.
  52. Bolliger, SA, Thali, MJ, Bolliger, MJ, Kneubuehl, BP (2010). Gunshot energy transfer profile in ballistic gelatine, determined with computed tomography using the total crack length method. Int. J. Legal Med.124,613-6.
  53. Ebert, LC, Schön, CA, Ruder, TD, Thali, MJ, Hatch, GM (2012). Fatal left ventricular rupture and pericardial tamponade following a horse kick to the chest. Am J Forensic Med Pathol33,167-9.
  54. Christe, A, Flach, P, Ross, S, Spendlove, D, Bolliger, S, Vock, P, Thali, MJ (2010). Clinical radiology and postmortem imaging (Virtopsy) are not the same: Specific and unspecific postmortem signs. Leg Med (Tokyo)12,215-22.
  55. Filograna, L, Bolliger, SA, Spendlove, D, Schön, C, Flach, PM, Thali, MJ (2010). Diagnosis of fatal pulmonary fat embolism with minimally invasive virtual autopsy and post-mortem biopsy. Leg Med (Tokyo)12,233-7.
  56. Ampanozi, G, Ruder, TD, Preiss, U, Aschenbroich, K, Germerott, T, Filograna, L, Thali, MJ (2010). Virtopsy: CT and MR imaging of a fatal head injury caused by a hatchet: A case report. Leg Med (Tokyo)12,238-41.
  57. Ruder, TD, Ross, S, Preiss, U, Thali, MJ (2010). Minimally invasive post-mortem CT-angiography in a case involving a gunshot wound. Leg Med (Tokyo)12,154-6.
  58. Flach, PM, Ross, SG, Bolliger, SA, Preiss, US, Thali, MJ, Spendlove, D (2010). Postmortem whole-body computed tomography angiography visualizing vascular rupture in a case of fatal car crash. Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.134,115-9.
  59. Bolliger, SA, Preiss, U, Glaeser, N, Thali, MJ, Ross, S (2010). Radiological stab wound channel depiction with instillation of contrast medium. Leg Med (Tokyo)12,39-41.
  60. Ebert, LC, Ptacek, W, Naether, S, Fürst, M, Ross, S, Buck, U, Weber, S, Thali, M (2010). Virtobot--a multi-functional robotic system for 3D surface scanning and automatic post mortem biopsy. Int J Med Robot6,18-27.
  61. Kempter, M, Ross, S, Spendlove, D, Flach, PM, Preiss, U, Thali, MJ, Bolliger, SA (2009). Post-mortem imaging of laryngohyoid fractures in strangulation incidents: first results. Leg Med (Tokyo)11,267-71.
  62. Bolliger, SA, Oesterhelweg, L, Spendlove, D, Ross, S, Thali, MJ (2009). Is differentiation of frequently encountered foreign bodies in corpses possible by Hounsfield density measurement?. J. Forensic Sci.54,1119-22.
  63. Oesterhelweg, L, Bolliger, SA, Thali, MJ, Ross, S (2009). Virtopsy: postmortem imaging of laryngeal foreign bodies. Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.133,806-10.
  64. Bolliger, SA, Ross, S, Oesterhelweg, L, Thali, MJ, Kneubuehl, BP (2009). Are full or empty beer bottles sturdier and does their fracture-threshold suffice to break the human skull?. J Forensic Leg Med16,138-42.
  65. Hollinger, A, Christe, A, Thali, MJ, Kneubuehl, BP, Oesterhelweg, L, Ross, S, Spendlove, D, Bolliger, SA (2009). Incidence of auditory ossicle luxation and petrous bone fractures detected in post-mortem multislice computed tomography (MSCT). Forensic Sci. Int.183,60-6.
  66. Buck, U, Christe, A, Naether, S, Ross, S, Thali, MJ (2009). Virtopsy -- noninvasive detection of occult bone lesions in postmortem MRI: additional information for traffic accident reconstruction. Int. J. Legal Med.123,221-6.
  67. Jackowski, C, Bolliger, S, Thali, MJ . Common and unexpected findings in mummies from ancient Egypt and South America as revealed by CT. Radiographics28,1477-92.
  68. Weilemann, Y, Thali, MJ, Kneubuehl, BP, Bolliger, SA (2008). Correlation between skeletal trauma and energy in falls from great height detected by post-mortem multislice computed tomography (MSCT). Forensic Sci. Int.180,81-5.
  69. Jacobsen, C, Schön, CA, Kneubuehl, B, Thali, MJ, Aghayev, E (2008). Unusually extensive head trauma in a hydraulic elevator accident: post-mortem MSCT findings, autopsy results and scene reconstruction. J Forensic Leg Med15,462-6.
  70. Schnider, J, Thali, MJ, Ross, S, Oesterhelweg, L, Spendlove, D, Bolliger, SA (2009). Injuries due to sharp trauma detected by post-mortem multislice computed tomography (MSCT): a feasibility study. Leg Med (Tokyo)11,4-9.
  71. Andenmatten, MA, Thali, MJ, Kneubuehl, BP, Oesterhelweg, L, Ross, S, Spendlove, D, Bolliger, SA (2008). Gunshot injuries detected by post-mortem multislice computed tomography (MSCT): a feasibility study. Leg Med (Tokyo)10,287-92.
  72. Ross, S, Spendlove, D, Bolliger, S, Christe, A, Oesterhelweg, L, Grabherr, S, Thali, MJ, Gygax, E (2008). Postmortem whole-body CT angiography: evaluation of two contrast media solutions. AJR Am J Roentgenol190,1380-9.
  73. Jackowski, C, Persson, A, Thali, MJ (2008). Whole body postmortem angiography with a high viscosity contrast agent solution using poly ethylene glycol as contrast agent dissolver. J. Forensic Sci.53,465-8.
  74. Jackowski, C, Wyss, M, Persson, A, Classens, M, Thali, MJ, Lussi, A (2008). Ultra-high-resolution dual-source CT for forensic dental visualization-discrimination of ceramic and composite fillings. Int. J. Legal Med.122,301-7.
  75. Aghayev, E, Staub, L, Dirnhofer, R, Ambrose, T, Jackowski, C, Yen, K, Bolliger, S, Christe, A, Roeder, C, Aebi, M et al. (2008). Virtopsy - the concept of a centralized database in forensic medicine for analysis and comparison of radiological and autopsy data. J Forensic Leg Med15,135-40.
  76. Aghayev, E, Jackowski, C, Thali, MJ, Yen, K, Dirnhofer, R, Sonnenschein, M (2008). Heart luxation and myocardium rupture in postmortem multislice computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Am J Forensic Med Pathol29,86-8.
  77. Grabherr, S, Gygax, E, Sollberger, B, Ross, S, Oesterhelweg, L, Bolliger, S, Christe, A, Djonov, V, Thali, MJ, Dirnhofer, R et al. (2008). Two-step postmortem angiography with a modified heart-lung machine: preliminary results. AJR Am J Roentgenol190,345-51.
  78. Bolliger, SA, Thali, MJ, Ross, S, Buck, U, Naether, S, Vock, P (2008). Virtual autopsy using imaging: bridging radiologic and forensic sciences. A review of the Virtopsy and similar projects. Eur Radiol18,273-82.
  79. Oesterhelweg, L, Ross, S, Spendlove, D, Schoen, CA, Christe, A, Thali, MJ, Bolliger, SA (2007). Virtopsy: fatal stab wounds to the skull--the relevance of ante-mortem and post-mortem radiological data in case reconstructions. Leg Med (Tokyo)9,314-7.
  80. Verhoff, MA, Ramsthaler, F, Krähahn, J, Deml, U, Gille, RJ, Grabherr, S, Thali, MJ, Kreutz, K (2008). Digital forensic osteology--possibilities in cooperation with the Virtopsy project. Forensic Sci. Int.174,152-6.
  81. Jackowski, C, Sonnenschein, M, Thali, MJ, Aghayev, E, Yen, K, Dirnhofer, R, Vock, P (2007). Intrahepatic gas at postmortem computed tomography: forensic experience as a potential guide for in vivo trauma imaging. J Trauma62,979-88.
  82. Thali, MJ, Jackowski, C, Oesterhelweg, L, Ross, SG, Dirnhofer, R (2007). VIRTOPSY - the Swiss virtual autopsy approach. Leg Med (Tokyo)9,100-4.
  83. Grabherr, S, Djonov, V, Friess, A, Thali, MJ, Ranner, G, Vock, P, Dirnhofer, R (2006). Postmortem angiography after vascular perfusion with diesel oil and a lipophilic contrast agent. AJR Am J Roentgenol187,W515-23.
  84. Dirnhofer, R, Jackowski, C, Vock, P, Potter, K, Thali, MJ . VIRTOPSY: minimally invasive, imaging-guided virtual autopsy. Radiographics26,1305-33.
  85. Jackowski, C, Christe, A, Sonnenschein, M, Aghayev, E, Thali, MJ (2006). Postmortem unenhanced magnetic resonance imaging of myocardial infarction in correlation to histological infarction age characterization. Eur. Heart J.27,2459-67.
  86. Aghayev, E, Jackowski, C, Sonnenschein, M, Thali, M, Yen, K, Dirnhofer, R (2006). Virtopsy hemorrhage of the posterior cricoarytenoid muscle by blunt force to the neck in postmortem multislice computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Am J Forensic Med Pathol27,25-9.
  87. Thali, MJ, Markwalder, T, Jackowski, C, Sonnenschein, M, Dirnhofer, R (2006). Dental CT imaging as a screening tool for dental profiling: advantages and limitations. J. Forensic Sci.51,113-9.
  88. Jackowski, C, Thali, M, Aghayev, E, Yen, K, Sonnenschein, M, Zwygart, K, Dirnhofer, R, Vock, P (2006). Postmortem imaging of blood and its characteristics using MSCT and MRI. Int. J. Legal Med.120,233-40.
  89. Jackowski, C, Thali, M, Sonnenschein, M, Aghayev, E, Yen, K, Dirnhofer, R (2005). Adipocere in postmortem imaging using multislice computed tomography (MSCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Am J Forensic Med Pathol26,360-4.
  90. Jackowski, C, Sonnenschein, M, Thali, MJ, Aghayev, E, von Allmen, G, Yen, K, Dirnhofer, R, Vock, P (2005). Virtopsy: postmortem minimally invasive angiography using cross section techniques--implementation and preliminary results. J. Forensic Sci.50,1175-86.
  91. Jackowski, C, Dirnhofer, S, Thali, M, Aghayev, E, Dirnhofer, R, Sonnenschein, M (2005). Postmortem diagnostics using MSCT and MRI of a lethal streptococcus group A infection at infancy: a case report. Forensic Sci. Int.151,157-63.
  92. Thali, MJ, Braun, M, Buck, U, Aghayev, E, Jackowski, C, Vock, P, Sonnenschein, M, Dirnhofer, R (2005). VIRTOPSY--scientific documentation, reconstruction and animation in forensic: individual and real 3D data based geo-metric approach including optical body/object surface and radiological CT/MRI scanning. J. Forensic Sci.50,428-42.
  93. Jackowski, C, Schweitzer, W, Thali, M, Yen, K, Aghayev, E, Sonnenschein, M, Vock, P, Dirnhofer, R (2005). Virtopsy: postmortem imaging of the human heart in situ using MSCT and MRI. Forensic Sci. Int.149,11-23.
  94. Aghayev, E, Thali, M, Jackowski, C, Sonnenschein, M, Yen, K, Vock, P, Dirnhofer, R (2004). Virtopsy--fatal motor vehicle accident with head injury. J. Forensic Sci.49,809-13.
  95. Yen, K, Vock, P, Tiefenthaler, B, Ranner, G, Scheurer, E, Thali, MJ, Zwygart, K, Sonnenschein, M, Wiltgen, M, Dirnhofer, R et al. (2004). Virtopsy: forensic traumatology of the subcutaneous fatty tissue; multislice computed tomography (MSCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as diagnostic tools. J. Forensic Sci.49,799-806.
  96. Aghayev, E, Yen, K, Sonnenschein, M, Ozdoba, C, Thali, M, Jackowski, C, Dirnhofer, R (2004). Virtopsy post-mortem multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrating descending tonsillar herniation: comparison to clinical studies. Neuroradiology46,559-64.
  97. Plattner, T, Thali, MJ, Yen, K, Sonnenschein, M, Stoupis, C, Vock, P, Zwygart-Brügger, K, Kilchör, T, Dirnhofer, R (2003). Virtopsy-postmortem multislice computed tomography (MSCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in a fatal scuba diving incident. J. Forensic Sci.48,1347-55.
  98. Thali, MJ, Yen, K, Schweitzer, W, Vock, P, Boesch, C, Ozdoba, C, Schroth, G, Ith, M, Sonnenschein, M, Doernhoefer, T et al. (2003). Virtopsy, a new imaging horizon in forensic pathology: virtual autopsy by postmortem multislice computed tomography (MSCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)--a feasibility study. J. Forensic Sci.48,386-403.
  99. Postmortem pulmonary CT in hypothermia.Schweitzer W, Thali M, Giugni G, Winklhofer S. Forensic Sci Med Pathol. 2014 Dec;10(4):557-69. doi: 10.1007/s12024-014-9611-2.PMID: 25326676.
  100. Comparative radiologic identification with CT images of paranasal sinuses–Development of a standardized approach. TD Ruder, C Brun, AM Christensen, MJ Thali, D Gascho, W Schweitzer, .Journal of Forensic Radiology and Imaging 7, 1-9 2016
  101. Use of a low-cost three-dimensional gaming controller for forensic reconstruction of CT images. M Teistler, G Ampanozi, W Schweitzer, P Flach, MJ Thali, LC Ebert. Journal of Forensic Radiology and Imaging 7, 10-13. 2016
  102. Forensic 3D Visualization of CT Data Using Cinematic Volume Rendering: a Preliminary Study. LC Ebert, W Schweitzer, D Gascho, TD Ruder, PM Flach, MJ Thali, American Journal of Roentgenology, 1-8 2 2016
  103. Small–but fatal: Postmortem computed tomography indicated acute tonsillitis R Baumeister, S Gauthier, W Schweitzer, MJ Thali, S Mauf Journal of Forensic Radiology and Imaging 6, 52-56 2016
  104. Automatic entry point planning for robotic post-mortem CT-based needle placement LC Ebert, M Fürst, W Ptacek, TD Ruder, D Gascho, W Schweitzer, .Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology 12 (3), 336-342 2016
  105. Very economical immersion pump feasibility for postmortem CT angiography W Schweitzer, PM Flach, M Thali, P Laberke, D Gascho Journal of Forensic Radiology and Imaging 5, 8-14 1 2016
  106. Forensic 3D surface documentation at the Institute of Forensic Medicine in Zurich–Workflow and communication pipeline LC Ebert, P Flach, W Schweitzer, A Leipner, S Kottner, D Gascho, .Journal of Forensic Radiology and Imaging 5, 1-7 2 2016
  107. Virtopsy material testing: Bicycle helmet inspection after an apparently minor fall W Schweitzer, M Thali Journal of Forensic Radiology and Imaging 5, 72-74 2016
  108. No shit–Abdominal calcification based identification of a decomposed body J Jarmer, M Thali, W Schweitzer Journal of Forensic Radiology and Imaging 5, 68-69 2016
  109. Pulmonary thromboembolism on unenhanced postmortem computed tomography: Feasibility and findings G Ampanozi, U Held, TD Ruder, SG Ross, W Schweitzer, J Fornaro, Legal Medicine 20, 68-74 2016 To appear in: Journal of Forensic Radiology and Imaging
  110. Skull fractures in post-mortem CT: VRT, flat and skin surface projections in comparison. W Schweitzer, T Ruder, M Thali, H Ringl Journal of Forensic Radiology and Imaging 3 (4), 214-220 2015
  111. Computed tomography of scalp embedded gravel: Differentiation between falling and kicking W Schweitzer, M Thali Journal of Forensic Radiology and Imaging 3 (4), 200-209 2015
  112. Virtopsy guided medicolegal autopsy technique yielding unparalleled neuropathology of syringobulbomyelia distended by acute hemorrhage into hemangioblastoma after chiropractor treatment W Schweitzer, M Thali Journal of Forensic Radiology and Imaging 3 (3), 191-192 1 2015
  113. Deep into the fibers! Postmortem diffusion tensor imaging in forensic radiology PM Flach, S Schroth, W Schweitzer, G Ampanozi, J Slotboom, C Kiefer, ..The American journal of forensic medicine and pathology 36 (3), 153-161 3 2015
  114. Role of post-mortem computed tomography (PMCT) in the assessment of the challenging diagnosis of pericardial tamponade as cause of death in cases with hemopericardium L Filograna, P Laberke, G Ampanozi, W Schweitzer, MJ Thali, L Bonomo La radiologia medica 120 (8), 723-730 1 2015
  115. Systematic analysis of the radiologic findings of aortic dissections on unenhanced postmortem computed tomography G Ampanozi, PM Flach, J Fornaro, SG Ross, W Schweitzer, MJ Thali, ..Forensic science, medicine, and pathology 11 (2), 162-167 1 2015
  116. Racking the brain: detection of cerebral edema on postmortem computed tomography compared with forensic autopsy N Berger, G Ampanozi, W Schweitzer, SG Ross, D Gascho, TD Ruder, ...European journal of radiology 84 (4), 643-651 4 2015
  117. Shell fragment aspiration seen at post-mortem computed tomography indicating drowning SA Bolliger, S Ross, L Marino, MJ Thali, W Schweitzer Journal of Forensic Radiology and Imaging 3 (1), 87-90 2015
  118. Cat CAT-scan: Postmortem imaging and autopsy of two cats RM Martinez, U Hetzel, MJ Thali, W Schweitzer Journal of Forensic Radiology and Imaging 3 (1), 80-86 2 2015
  119. Porca miseria W Schweitzer, S Franckenberg, S EggertJournal of Forensic Radiology and Imaging 3 (1), 102-103 2015
  120. Computer-assisted virtual autopsy using surgical navigation techniques LC Ebert, TD Ruder, RM Martinez, PM Flach, W Schweitzer, MJ Thali, ...American Journal of Roentgenology 204 (1), W58-W62 1 2015
  121. Postmortem pulmonary CT in hypothermia W Schweitzer, M Thali, G Giugni, S Winklhofer Forensic science, medicine, and pathology 10 (4), 557-569 3 2014
  122. Imaging in forensic radiology: an illustrated guide for postmortem computed tomography technique and protocols PM Flach, D Gascho, W Schweitzer, TD Ruder, N Berger, SG Ross, ...Forensic science, medicine, and pathology 10 (4), 583-60 442014
  123. Lethal lung tear and coronary artery gas embolism in shallow water apnea diving exercise–PMCT, PMMRI, autopsy and histology W Schweitzer, M Marti, R Majcen, P Steinmann, M Thali, J Fornaro, ... Journal of Forensic Radiology and Imaging 2 (4), 199-2042014
  124. Getting a virtual grasp on the virtual grasp: Virtually inside a myoelectric prosthetic arm W Schweitzer Journal of Forensic Radiology and Imaging 2 (4), 217-218 2014
  125. “Blind spots” in forensic autopsy: Improved detection of retrobulbar hemorrhage and orbital lesions by postmortem computed tomography (PMCT) PM Flach, TC Egli, SA Bolliger, N Berger, G Ampanozi, MJ Thali, ... Legal Medicine 16 (5), 274-2822014
  126. Patent foramen ovale as incidental finding in postmortem computed tomography angiography N Berger, PM Flach, SG Ross, W Schweitzer, TD Ruder, D Gascho, ... Journal of Forensic Radiology and Imaging 2 (3), 143-145 2014
  127. Post-mortem whole body computed tomography of opioid (heroin and methadone) fatalities: frequent findings and comparison to autopsy S Winklhofer, E Surer, G Ampanozi, T Ruder, P Stolzmann, M Elliott, ...European radiology 24 (6), 1276-1282 10 2014
  128. Added value of dual-energy computed tomography versus single-energy computed tomography in assessing ferromagnetic properties of ballistic projectiles: implications for magnetic resonance imaging of gunshot victims S Winklhofer, P Stolzmann, A Meier, W Schweitzer, F Morsbach, P Flach, ...Investigative radiology 49 (6), 431-437 8 2014
  129. 2.10. Racking the brain! Cerebral edema on postmortem computed tomography compared to forensic autopsy N Berger, G Ampanozi, W Schweitzer, SG Ross, D Gascho, TD Ruder, ...Journal of Forensic Radiology and Imaging 2 (2), 102 2014
  130. 2.8. Post-mortem CT (PMCT) imaging findings of pericardial tamponade due to hemopericardium
  131. F Filograna, P Laberke, G Ampanozi, W Schweitzer, MJ Thali Journal of Forensic Radiology and Imaging 2 (2), 1012014
  132. Science into practice: post-mortem imaging provides conclusive evidence in a non-suspicious death TD Ruder, P Paula, GM Hatch, G Ampanozi, MJ Thali, W Schweitzer Journal of Forensic Radiology and Imaging 2 (2), 80-84 3 2014
  133. CT‐Guided, Minimally Invasive, Postmortem Needle Biopsy Using the B‐Rob II Needle‐Positioning Robot RM Martinez, W Ptacek, W Schweitzer, G Kronreif, M Fürst, MJ Thali, ...Journal of forensic sciences 59 (2), 517-521 6 2014
  134. Virtopsy approach: structured reporting versus free reporting for PMCT findings W Schweitzer, C Bartsch, TD Ruder, MJ Thali Journal of Forensic Radiology and Imaging 2 (1), 28-33 8 2014
  135. Rib fractures at postmortem computed tomography (PMCT) validated against the autopsy C Schulze, H Hoppe, W Schweitzer, N Schwendener, S Grabherr, .Forensic science international 233 (1), 90-98 25 2013
  136. Feasibility of post mortem cardiac proton density weighted fast field echo imaging in two cases of sudden death HJA Crooijmans, TD Ruder, S Eggert, P Paula, MJ Thali, O Bieri, ... Legal medicine 15 (6), 310-314 2 2013
  137. Plausibility of assisted suicide by ingestion in a case of limb-girdle muscular dystrophy W Schweitzer, MJ Thali, PM Flach Journal of Forensic Radiology and Imaging 1 (4), 207-211 1 2013
  138. Sex determination from the foramen magnum K Edwards, MD Viner, W Schweitzer, MJ Thali Journal of forensic radiology and imaging 1 (4), 186-192 10 2013
  139. Aspects of 3D surface scanner performance for post-mortem skin documentation in forensic medicine using rigid benchmark objects W Schweitzer, E Röhrich, M Schaepman, MJ Thali, L Ebert Journal of Forensic Radiology and Imaging 1 (4), 167-175 12 2013
  140. Assessment of laryngeal tube placement on post mortem computed tomography scans
  141. W Schweitzer, I Spycher, S Winklhofer, MJ Thali, TD Ruder, G Ampanozi, ...Journal of Forensic Radiology and Imaging 1 (3), 119-123 2013
  142. Medicolegal X-Ray and CT of standard size mobile phone cards (SIM card) W Schweitzer, S Winklhofer, MJ Thali, NA Yaakup, SN bin Abdul Rashid Journal of Forensic Radiology and Imaging 1 (3), 129-133 2013
  143. Bodypacking S Markun, PM Flach, W Schweitzer, S Imbach Praxis 102 (15), 891-901 2013
  144. Post-mortem CT-angiography of the brain and craniocervical junction P Flach, G Ampanozi, L Ebert, T Ruder, W Schweitzer, N Berger, M Thali, ... Journal of Forensic Radiology and Imaging 1 (2), 78 2013
  145. Forensic imaging: 3D visualization of scattered CT-dense particles contained in the skin W Schweitzer, M Thali, T Ruder Journal of Forensic Radiology and Imaging 1 (2), 86 2013
  146. Pulmonary fat embolism—a prospective study within the forensic autopsy collective of the Republic of Iceland MX Voisard, W Schweitzer, C Jackowski Journal of forensic sciences 58 (s1) 4 2013
  147. Skin injury model classification based on shape vector analysis E Röhrich, M Thali, W Schweitzer BMC medical imaging 12 (1), 32 3 2012
  148. Coronary thrombus and peracute myocardial infarction visualized by unenhanced postmortem MRI prior to autopsy C Jackowski, K Hofmann, N Schwendener, W Schweitzer, M Keller-Sutter Forensic science international 214 (1), e16-e19 22 2012
  149. Suicides in the canton of Zurich (Switzerland) SD Klein, C Bischoff, W Schweitzer Swiss Med Wkly 140, w13102 12 2010
  150. Interpretation of injury by forensic medicine W Schweitzer, W Baer, M Keller KRIMINALISTIK 63 (1), 48-54 2009
  151. Biometry in forensic medicine W Schweitzer, W Baer, E Roehrich KRIMINALISTIK 63 (1), 42-47 2009
  152. Spectroscopic discrimination of shit from shinola TH Painter, ME Schaepman, W Schweitzer, J Brazile
  153. Annals of Improbable Research 13 (5), 22-23 3 2007
  154. Virtopsy: postmortem imaging of the human heart in situ using MSCT and MRI C Jackowski, W Schweitzer, M Thali, K Yen, E Aghayev, M Sonnenschein, ...Forensic science international 149 (1), 11-23 114 2005
  155. Untersuchungen von Opfern sexueller Gewalt–das Problem der Falschanzeige Wyler, Gerlach, Klopfstein, Schweitzer, Dittmann Therapeutische Umschau 62 (4), 255-259 1 2005
  156. Digital 3D reconstruction of two parahissian accessory bundles in a case of Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome C Steffen, M Schaepman, T Hardmeier, W Schweitzer International journal of legal medicine 118 (2), 101-105 2004
  157. Geometrie von virtuellen Oberflächer: Darstellung der Passgenauigkeit durch Berechnung einer farbkodierten Fehleroberfläche W Schweitzer, ME Schaepman, W Bär Rechtsmedizin 13 (4), 259-259 2003
  158. Evidential value of postmortem MRI in forensic pathology W Schweitzer, ME Schaepman, M Ith, K Bruegger, MJ Thali, T Doernhofer, ...Medical Imaging 2001, 404-408 2 2001
  159. Histological findings after TMR-Conclusions for the underlying principle W Schweitzer Transmyocardial Laser Revascularization 3681, 27 5 1998
  160. Comparison of Maximal Left Ventricular Intramyocardial Artery Lumen Diameter in 2 Aneurysmectomy Specimen after TMR and 44 Control Patients W Schweitzer, S Dangel, M Schaepman, M Wagen, D Maass, S Cordner, ...Laser-Medizin: eine interdisziplinäre Zeitschrift; Praxis, Klinik, Forschung ...
  161. Digital 3D image reconstruction of ventriculocapillary communication as revealed in one case after transmyocardial laser revascularization W Schweitzer, D Maass, M Schaepman, M Wagen, D Ranson, ... Pathology-Research and Practice 194 (2), 65-71 7 1998
  162. Transmyocardial laser revascularization. Postmortal myocardial histomorphology of laser channels in 10 patients 1 to 18 days after treatment with a CO2-laser W Schweitzer, J Schneider, D Maas, T Hardmeier Pathologe 18, 374-84 1 1997
  163. Transmyokardiale Laserrevaskularisation Histopathologische Befunde an Laserkanälen bei 10 postoperativ verstorbenen Patienten 1 bis 18 Tage nach Behandlung mit einem CO2-Laser W Schweitzer, J Schneider, D Maass, T Hardmeier Der Pathologe 18 (5), 374-384 5 1997
  164. Digital handwriting recognition in data collection for autopsy reports with an Apple Newton W
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Books

The textbook The Virtopsy Approach (CRC Press, Boca Raton, USA, 1st ed. 2009) which was edited by Michael Thali, Richard Dirnhofer and Peter Vock provides in-depth information on forensic imaging.Click here to order the book online through Amazon.com
Gil Brogdon”s standard textbook Brogdon’s Forensic Radiology (CRC Press, Boca Raton, USA, 2nd ed. 2010) which was edited by Gil Brodon, Michael Thali and Mark Viner provides an excellent overview of forensic radiology and features several chapters on Virtopsy.Click here to order the book online through Amazon.com

 

Media

There are numerous articles in the popular press on Virtopsy and forensic imaging.A selection of articles is provided here: